The 1857 Revolt is an important part of the Indian history that began as a sepoy mutiny of the British East India Company. There are several causes of this revolution in India. Though it was first started in the town of Meerut but later it was erupted into all the other mutinies. The major aggressions were happened to the present day northern Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Delhi region.
Nature of 1857 Revolt:
Basically it was a sepoy mutiny that was joined by the peasants and other people in the later stage. This sepoy mutiny is also known as the Great Rebellion or the Indian Mutiny or the Revolt of 1857 or India's First War of Independence. This revolution started with the military revolts by sepoys of the Bengal Presidency army in the year 1857.
Causes of 1857 Revolt:
- Introduction of the new Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifles in the army. All the sepoys had to bite the cartridges of the rifles to open. It was also believed that the cartridges were greased with lard (pork fat) and tallow (beef fat). It was a major cause behind the 1857 Revolt.
- The Englishmen of the East India Company introduced several reforms like widow remarriage, abolition of 'Sati' and so on that hurt the religious beliefs of the Hindus.
- Not only this, the East India Company also introduced several innovations in the daily life. They introduced railways and telegraph system in the Indian scenario that was highly misapprehended by the natives.
- Introduction of 'Doctrine of Lapse' for annexation of Indian states. The Rani (queen) of Jhansi, Lakshibai who was one of the main leaders of the 1857 Revolt. She earlier had lost her kingdom caused by the 'Doctrine of Lapse'.
- Moreover, the East India Company also stopped the pension of Nana Saheb. This caused agitation in his kingdom and Nana Saheb strictly opposed the authority of the East India Company.
Causes of Failure:
- Better war plan of the East India Company is one of the major causes of failure 1857 Revolt.
- East India Company possessed a well-trained and well-equipped army which was much better than the Indian strength.
- Lack of proper leadership quality in the Indian sepoys.
- A portion of the Indian mainly zamindars and other higher communities supported the East India Company.